Fields of expertise
- Waste and Bioenergy Technology development
- Synthesis and Characterization (incl. Synchrotron Methods) of Nano-Particle-based materials for biofuel synthesis, gascleaning, and other CleanTech applications
- Development of Analytical Devices and Methods for on-line and in-situ investigations
- Analyzing, Modeling, and Controlling the Fate of Trace Elements and (Nano-)Particles in waste and biofuel applications
- Natural Resources Management
- Recycling of Minerals, Metals (incl. REEs), and Nutrients
MissionThe technological development in the last 100 years has strongly increased the demands for energy and materials and this is increasingly affecting the natural materials cycles. Within the general subject of sustainable resources management our group is contributing to the technology development in the following fields:
- New materials for resource efficient (energy) technologies
- Controlling the fate of valuable and/or harmful materials
- Recycling, recovery and reuse of raw materials
In this context nanoparticles and nanoobjects, their synthesis, fate, physical-chemical characterization and behavior, are of particular interest.
Environmental sciences and research investigate and describe the natural processes and try to quantify the influence of human activities. From this it is possible to derive the aims for an environmentally sound course of action. Afterwards, implementation on the technological, political and social level is necessary. In coordination with the industrial sector, the authorities issue guidelines and adapt laws. In the past a series of environmental standards have been implemented. However, such improvements are based on state-of-the-art technologies, as they can only be realized under economically acceptable boundary conditions. Often a technological gap remains between the desirable goals and the practicable solutions. It is our mission to fill or at least to minimize such technological gaps.
Current workRecent work focussed on
* nucleation and crystallization processes *
* size-resolved elemental anaylysis of gasborne nanoparticles *
* sorption processes for the cleaning of gases and fluids *
* recovery of rare earth elements and phosphor from wastes and residues *
* algal biomass and its applications for waste water treatment, biofuels and chemicals *
Biography2005 - today:
Adjunct Professor at EPFL and head of the joint EPFL-PSI Professorship in Solid Waste Treatment, consisting of the Ludwig Group (GR-LUD) at EPFL and the Chemical Processes and Materials research group (CPM) at PSI.
2000 - today:
Head, Group of Chemical Processes and Materials (CPM) at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in the Laboratory for Energy and Materials Cycles (LEM). In 2009 the LEM unit was closed and the CPM group is now affiliated to the Bioenergy and Catalysis Laboratory (LBK) of the Energy and Environment Research Division (ENE).
Since June 2002 permanent position ("tenure").
1997 - 1999:
Senior Scientist. Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), General Energy Research Department, Element Cycles Section.
1995 - 1997:
Research Fellow. Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG), Department of Resource and Waste Management.
1993 - 1995:
Post-doc Fellow. University of California Davis, Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources (LAWR).
1990 - 1993:
PhD Student. University of Berne, Department of Inorganic, Analytical, and Physical Chemistry.
1989 - 1990:
Master Student. University of Berne, Department of Inorganic, Analytical, and Physical Chemistry.
Solid Waste Treatment on InfoScience
Simple method for Cr(VI) determination by liquid-liquid microextraction combined with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: Application to water samples and industrial extractsSpectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2023. DOI : 10.1016/j.sab.2023.106682.
Aerosol-into-liquid capture and detection of atmospheric soluble metals across the gas–liquid interface using Janus-membrane electrodesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2023. DOI : 10.1073/pnas.2219388120.
The Kinetics of Adsorption and Desorption of Selected Semivolatile Hydrocarbons and H2O Vapor on Two Mineral Dust Materials: A Molecular ViewThe Journal of Physical Chemistry. 2022-11-09. DOI : 10.1021/acs.jpca.2c04903.
Effective removal of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus from a Chlorella vulgaris microalgal culture by homogeneous solar photo-Fenton at neutral pHWater Research. 2022-10-27. DOI : 10.1016/j.watres.2022.119301.
Platinum and Cerium-Zirconium Oxide Co-Doped Membrane for Mitigated H2 Crossover and Ionomer Degradation in PEWEJournal of The Electrochemical Society. 2022-10-10. DOI : 10.1149/1945-7111/ac94a3.
High-Throughput Sizing, Counting, and Elemental Analysis of Anisotropic Multimetallic Nanoparticles with Single-Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass SpectrometryACS Nano. 2022-07-25. DOI : 10.1021/acsnano.2c01840.
Standard-Free Quantification of Dicarboxylic Acids: Case Studies with Salt-Rich Effluents and SerumJournal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 2022-05-05. DOI : 10.1021/jasms.1c00377.
An elution-based method for estimating efficiencies of aerosol collection devices not affected by their pressure dropsSeparation and Purification Technology. 2022-01-30. DOI : 10.1016/j.seppur.2022.120590.
Enhancing Algae Biomass Production by Using Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells as FiltersACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 2021-10-20. DOI : 10.1021/acssuschemeng.1c03780.
Investigating active phase loss from supported ruthenium catalysts during supercritical water gasificationCatalysis Science & Technology. 2021-10-14. DOI : 10.1039/D1CY00379H.
Cultivation of microalgae at high-density with pretreated liquid digestate as a nitrogen source: Fate of nitrogen and improvements on growth limitationsJournal of Cleaner Production. 2021-10-04. DOI : 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.129238.
Coexistence of reactive functional groups at the interface of a powdered activated amorphous carbon: a molecular viewMolecular Physics. 2021-08-20. DOI : 10.1080/00268976.2021.1966110.
Sampling, on-line and off-line measurement of organic silicon compounds at an industrial biogas-fed 175-kWe SOFC plantRenewable Energy. 2021-05-18. DOI : 10.1016/j.renene.2021.05.047.
Soft-probe-scanning electrochemical microscopy reveals electrochemical surface reactivity of E. coli biofilmsSensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2021-02-16. DOI : 10.1016/j.snb.2021.129669.
Detection of trace metals in biogas using extractive electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometryRenewable Energy. 2021-01-11. DOI : 10.1016/j.renene.2021.01.047.
The effect of equilibration time on Al uptake in C-S-HCement and Concrete Research. 2021. DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2021.106438.
Extraction of Rare Earth Metals: The New Thermodynamic Considerations Toward Process HydrometallurgyRare Metal Technology 2021; Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2021. p. 346.
CaP bone‐like coating for fast osseointegration of dental implantsClinical Oral Implants Research. 2020-10-05. DOI : 10.1111/clr.1_13644.
Inside Back CoverJournal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2020-08-01. DOI : 10.1016/S0021-9797(20)30617-2.
HillCity - Future city, living and working under the same roofSwiss Low Carbon Cities, Development Practices and Experience Research; Sichuan: Sichuan University Press, 2020-07-01. p. 210-219.
Precipitation Pathways: In Situ Liquid SAXS Studies on the Early Stage of Calcium Carbonate Formation (Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 6/2019)Particle & Particle Systems Characterization. 2020-06-14. DOI : 10.1002/ppsc.201970014.
A novel proposition for a citrate-modified photo-Fenton process against bacterial contamination of microalgae culturesApplied Catalysis B: Environmental. 2020-05-15. DOI : 10.1016/j.apcatb.2020.118615.
Evaporation of Metals during the Thermal Treatment of Oxide Nanomaterials in Cellulose-Based MatricesEnvironmental Science & Technology. 2020-03-10. DOI : 10.1021/acs.est.9b06359.
Understanding the effects of material properties and operating conditions on component aging in polymer electrolyte water electrolyzersJournal of Power Sources. 2020-02-14. DOI : 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.227778.
Siloxane compounds in biogas from manure and mixed organic waste: Method development and speciation analysis with GC-ICP-MSTalanta. 2020-02-01. DOI : 10.1016/j.talanta.2019.120398.
Real-Time Detection of Aerosol Metals Using Online Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass SpectrometryAnalytical Chemistry. 2020-01-07. DOI : 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b04480.
Quantifying Litter Emissions into the Swiss Environment - A bottom-up approach focusing on roads2020
In Situ Liquid SAXS Studies on the Early Stage of Calcium Carbonate FormationParticle & Particle Systems Characterization. 2019-05-23. DOI : 10.1002/ppsc.201800482.
A dilute gold nanoparticle suspension as small-angle X-ray scattering standard for an absolute scale using an extended Guinier approximationJournal of Applied Crystallography. 2019-04-01. DOI : 10.1107/S1600576719001109.
PROGRESS TOWARDS THE RESOURCE REVOLUTIONPaul Scherrer Institute: World Resources Forum.
Rare Earth Metals Recycling from E-Wastes: Strategy and PerspectiveProgress towards the Resource Revolution; World Resources Forum, 2019-03-01.
Gülle zu Biomethan - Eine techno-ökonomische Bewertung innovativer KleinanlagenAqua & Gas. 2019.
Kinetics and Mechanism of Metal Nanoparticle Growth via Optical Extinction Spectroscopy and Computational Modeling: The Curious Case of Colloidal GoldACS Nano. 2019. DOI : 10.1021/acsnano.9b04981.
A combined hydrothermal gasification - solid oxide fuel cell system for sustainable production of algal biomass and energyAlgal Research. 2019. DOI : 10.1016/j.algal.2019.101552.
Combustion generated nanomaterials: online characterization via an ICP-MS based technique. Part II: resolving power for heterogeneous matricesJournal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 2018-08-07. DOI : 10.1039/C8JA00067K.
Combustion generated nanomaterials: online characterization via an ICP-MS based technique. Part I: calibration strategy with a TGAJournal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 2018-08-07. DOI : 10.1039/C8JA00066B.
Formation and transformation of calcium phosphate phases under biologically relevant conditions: Experiments and modellingActa Biomaterialia. 2018-05-18. DOI : 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.05.027.
Fate and reuse of nitrogen-containing organics from the hydrothermal conversion of algal biomassAlgal Research. 2018-04-21. DOI : 10.1016/j.algal.2018.04.005.
Thermophilic cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya sp2018-02-04.
Emissions of Secondary Formed ZnO Nano-Objects from the Combustion of Impregnated Wood. An Online Size-Resolved Elemental InvestigationEnvironmental Science & Technology. 2018. DOI : 10.1021/acs.est.7b03584.
On the mesoscale mechanism of synthetic calcium–silicate–hydrate precipitation: a population balance modeling approachJournal of Materials Chemistry A. 2018. DOI : 10.1039/C7TA08784E.
Bending properties of two- and three-dimensional-shaped nanoparticles fabricated via substrate conformal imprint lithographyJournal of Nanoparticle Research. 2017. DOI : 10.1007/s11051-017-3886-7.
Thermodynamic properties of the Ba 0.75 Sr 0.25 TiO 3 nanopowders obtained by hydrothermal synthesisJournal of Alloys and Compounds. 2017. DOI : 10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.09.215.
Boosting Resource Productivity by Adopting the Circular EconomyVilligen PSI: World Resources Forum, printed by Paul Scherrer Institute.
Supercritical water gasification of effluents from composted human excreta and recycling of the aqueous phases for microalgae cultivation2017
Dopant-Free Hole-Transporting Materials for Stable and Efficient Perovskite Solar CellsAdvanced Materials. 2017. DOI : 10.1002/adma.201606555.
Adsorption of thiophene by activated carbon: A global sensitivity analysisJournal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2017. DOI : 10.1016/j.jece.2017.07.041.
Structural Reversibility and Nickel Particle stability in Lanthanum Iron Nickel Perovskite-Type CatalystsChemSusChem. 2017. DOI : 10.1002/cssc.201700358.
Extraction of carotenoids from Chlorella vulgaris using green solvents and syngas production from residual biomassAlgal Research. 2017. DOI : 10.1016/j.algal.2017.05.003.
The impact of sorbent geometry on the sulphur adsorption under supercritical water conditions: a numerical studyBiomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2017. DOI : 10.1007/s13399-017-0265-7.
Surface GeochemistryEncyclopedia of Geochemistry; Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017. p. 1-5.
Catalytic Supercritical Water Gasification: Continuous Methanization of Chlorella vulgarisIndustrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 2017. DOI : 10.1021/acs.iecr.7b00042.
Deactivation Aspects of Methane Oxidation Catalysts Based on Palladium and ZSM-5Topics In Catalysis. 2017. DOI : 10.1007/s11244-016-0724-6.
A Practical Guide on Coupling a Scanning Mobility Sizer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (SMPS-ICPMS)JoVE. 2017. DOI : 10.3791/55487.
Iron phosphate nanoparticles for food fortification: Biological effects in rats and human cell linesNanotoxicology. 2017. DOI : 10.1080/17435390.2017.1314035.
Tailoring the phase of Li–Al–O nanoparticles by nonaqueous sol–gel chemistryJournal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 2017. DOI : 10.1007/s10971-017-4360-9.
Thermodynamic-Kinetic Precipitation Modeling. A Case Study: The Amorphous Calcium Carbonate (ACC) Precipitation Pathway UnravelledCrystal Growth & Design. 2017. DOI : 10.1021/acs.cgd.7b00006.
Solid Waste Engineering - A Global Perspective, SI Edition (3e)Australia - Brazil - Singapore - United Kingdom - United States: Cengage Learning.
Catalytic supercritical water gasification: Interaction of sulfur with ZnO and the ruthenium catalystApplied Catalysis B: Environmental. 2017. DOI : 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.09.011.
Solid Waste Engineering - A Global Perspective, 3rd EditionCENGAGE Learning.
Radiation stability of diglycolamide functionalized calixarenes in ionic liquid: Solvent extraction, EPR and GC–MS studiesSeparation and Purification Technology. 2016. DOI : 10.1016/j.seppur.2016.02.017.
Continuous Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using the Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR)CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry. 2016. DOI : 10.2533/chimia.2016.457.
Organic-sulfur poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell operated on bio-syngasInternational Journal Of Hydrogen Energy. 2016. DOI : 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.06.014.
On-line liquid quench sampling and UV–Vis spectroscopy for tar measurements in wood gasification process gasesFuel. 2016. DOI : 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.06.127.
Weakly Conjugated Hybrid Zinc Porphyrin Sensitizers for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar CellsAdvanced Functional Materials. 2016. DOI : 10.1002/adfm.201601120.
Size control of Pt clusters on CeO2 nanoparticles via an incorporation-segregation mechanism and study of segregation kineticsACS Catalysis. 2016. DOI : 10.1021/acscatal.6b00934.
Online Size and Element Analysis of Aerosol Particles Released from Thermal Treatment of Wood Samples Impregnated with Different SaltsEnergy & Fuels. 2016. DOI : 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00174.
|Ludwig, Chr. and Valdivia, S. (Eds.)
Book, a publication of World Resources Forum, printed by Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, (2019) - 232 pages (ISBN 978-3-9521409-8-7)
|Progress towards the Resource Revolution|
|Ludwig, Chr. and Matasci, C. (Eds.)
Book, a publication of World Resources Forum, printed by Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, (2017) - 429 pages
|Boosting Resource Productivity by Adopting the Circular Economy|
|Ludwig, Chr. and Casey, W.H.
Book chapter, in: Encyclopedia of Geochemistry, White, W.M. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, Springer International Publishing, 1-5 (2017), ISBN: 978-3-319-39193-9
|Worrell, W.A., Vesilid, P.A., Ludwig, Chr.
Book, Cengage Learning (2017) - 499 pages
|Solid Waste Engineering - A Global Perspective|
|Worrell, W.A., Vesilind, P.A., Ludwig, Chr.
Book, Cengage Learning (2017) - 499 pages
|Solid Waste Engineering - A Global Perspective, SI Edition (3e)|
|Ludwig, Chr., Matasci, C., Edelmann, X. (Eds.)
Book, A publication of World Resources Forum, printed by Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, 2015 - 351 pages
|Natural Resources - Sustainable Targets, Technologies, Lifestyles and Governance|
|Ludwig, Chr., Lehmann, M., Edelmann, X. (Eds.)
Special Issue (Part II), in Science Of The Total Environment, vol. 481, 637ff, Elsevier, 2014
|Shaping the Future of Natural Resources|
|Ludwig, Chr., Lehmann, M., Edelmann, X. (Eds.)
Special Issue (Part I), in Science Of The Total Environment, vol. 461, 773ff, Elsevier, 2013.
|How to do with less - Shaping the Future of Natural Resources|
|Edited by Edelmann X. and Ludwig Chr.
A publication of Empa - 58 pages
|Book of Abstracts, World Resources Forum 2011 (WRF 2011)|
|Edited by Mishra, B., Ludwig, Chr., Das, S.
A publication of TMS - 1849 pages
|Proceedings of the 2008 Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology (REWAS 2008)|
|Ludwig, Chr., Hellweg, S., Stucki, S.
Book, Springer (2003) - 534 pages
|Municipal Solid Waste Management - Strategies and Technologies for Sustainable Solutions|
|Ludwig, Chr., Hellweg, S., Stucki, S.
Brochure, Synthesis of the knowledge gained during the Integrated Project Waste of the Priority Program Environment (Swiss National Science Foundation 1996-1999), Villigen PSI (2000) - 32 pages
|Directing Material Fluxes, Advances in Municipal Solid Waste Management and Technology|
|Wochele, J., Ludwig, Chr., Stucki, S., Auer, P. O., Schuler, A. J.
Book chapter, in: Forschung für eine nachhaltige Abfallwirtschaft, Eds. S. Stucki et al., ISBN 3-9521409-1-0, Villigen, Switzerland, Eigenverlag Paul Scherrer Institut und Schweizerischer Nationalfonds (1999)
|Abfall- und Rückstandsbehandlung: Grundlagen zur thermischen Schwermetallseparation|
|Casey, W. H., Ludwig, Chr., Holmén, B.
Book chapter, in: Proceedings of the Rome Seminar on Environmental Geochemistry, Castelnuovo di Porto 22-26 Maggio 1996, Eds. Marini L. and Ottonello G., Pacini Editore, Pisa (1998)
|Towards Understanding the Rates of Reactions at Mineral Surfaces|
|Casey, W. H., Ludwig, Chr.
Book chapter, In: Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals, Eds. White, A. F., and Brantley S. L., Reviews in Mineralogy Vol. 31, Ser. Ed. Ribbe, H. P., Mineralogical Society of America, BookCrafters Inc (1995)
|Silicate Mineral Dissolution as a Ligand-Exchange-Reaction|
Publications of my research grouph-index and i10-index of my research group on Google Scholar
My personal publicationsMy personal h-index and i10-index on Google Scholar
Teaching & PhD
Environmental Sciences and Engineering