Fields of expertise
1. Thin Film Biophysics
3. CMOS design
BiographySandro Carrara is an IEEE Fellow for his outstanding record of accomplishments in the field of design of nanoscale biological CMOS sensors. He is also the recipient of the IEEE Sensors Council Technical Achievement Award in 2016 for his leadership in the emerging area of co-design in Bio/Nano/CMOS interfaces. He is a Professor of the EPFL in Lausanne (Switzerland), and head of the Bio/CMOS Interfaces Laboratory (BCI) . He is former professor of optical and electrical biosensors at the Department of Electrical Engineering and Biophysics (DIBE) of the University of Genoa (Italy) and former professor of nanobiotechnology at the University of Bologna (Italy). He holds a PhD in Biochemistry & Biophysics from University of Padua (Italy), a Master degree in Physics from University of Genoa (Italy), and a diploma in Electronics from National Institute of Technology in Albenga (Italy). His scientific interests are on electrical phenomena of nano-bio-structured films, and include CMOS design of biochips based on proteins and DNA. Along his carrier, he published 7 books, one as author with Springer on Bio/CMOS interfaces and, more recently, a Handbook of Bioelectronics with Cambridge University Press. He has more than 340 scientific publications and is author of 14 patents. He is now Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Sensors Journal, the largest journal among more than 220 IEEE publications; he is also founder and Editor-in-Chief of the journal BioNanoScience by Springer, and Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. He is a member of the IEEE Sensors Council and his Executive Committee. He was a member of the Board of Governors (BoG) of the IEEE Circuits And Systems Society (CASS). He has been appointed as IEEE Sensors Council Distinguished Lecturer for the years 2017-2019, and CASS Distinguished Lecturer for the years 2013-2014. His work received several international recognitions: several Top-25 Hottest-Articles (2004, 2005, 2008, 2009, and two times in 2012) published in highly ranked international journals such as Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Sensors and Actuators B, IEEE Sensors journal, and Thin Solid Films; a NATO Advanced Research Award in 1996 for the original contribution to the physics of single-electron conductivity in nano-particles; seven Best Paper Awards: by the Sensors Council at the IEEE Symposium MeMeA (Bari) in 2020, at the IEEE Sensors Conference (Montreal) in 2019, Conferences IEEE NGCAS (Genoa) in 2017, MOBIHEALTH (Milan) in 2016, IEEE PRIME in 2015 (Glasgow), in 2010 (Berlin), and in 2009 (Cork); three Best Poster Awards at the EMBEC Conference in 2017 (Tampere, Finland), at the Nanotera workshop in 2011 (Bern), and at the NanoEurope Symposium in 2009 (Rapperswil). He also received the Best Referees Award from the journal Biosensor and Bioelectronics in 2006. From 1997 to 2000, he was a member of an international committee at the ELETTRA Synchrotron in Trieste. From 2000 to 2003, he was scientific leader of a National Research Program (PNR) in the filed of Nanobiotechnology. He was an internationally esteemed expert of the evaluation panel of the Academy of Finland in a research program for the years 2010-2013. He has been the General Chairman of the Conference IEEE BioCAS 2014, the premier worldwide international conference in the area of circuits and systems for biomedical applications
Founder and Editor-in-ChiefBioNanoScience by Springer
Editor-in-ChiefIEEE Sensors Journal
Associate EditorIEEE T. on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Board of Conferences2021: IEEE MeMeA (General Chair)
2018: IEEE MeMeA (Co-General Chair)
2017: IEEE BioCAS (TPC Chair)
2016: IEEE ICECS (TPC Chair) - IEEE ISCAS (Special Session Chair)
2015: IEEE BioCAS (TPC Chair) - IEEE Sensors Conference (Demos Chair)
2014: IEEE BioCAS (General Chair)
2013: IEEE IWASI
2012: IEEE BioCAS
2011: IEEE ISMICT (TPC Chair) / IEEE BioCAS / IEEE IWASI
2010: IEEE BioCAS
Current workSandro Carrara is the head of the Bio/CMOS Interfaces (BCI) Group. The group is one of the worldwide leader groups in the field of new bio/CMOS interfaces by also integrating innovative nano- and bio- materials in the electrochemical-sensing surface. Research involves both the design of novel biosensing devices, intimate integration of highly heterogeneous systems, and development of electronics with CMOS technology. The novel approach proposed by this leading group corresponds to a co-design of the different layers (bio, nano, and CMOS frontend) to improve the integration of these highly heterogeneous systems in order to overcome the usual limits of biosensors in term of specificity, sensitivity, and autonomy.
Diplôme en Electronique
institute technique National de Albenga (Italie)
Master en Physique
Université de Gênes (Italie)
Doctorat en biochimie de biophysique
Université de Padoue (Italie)
in recognition for contributions to design of nanoscale biological CMOS sensors
IEEE Sensors Council Technical Achievement Award
for design of nanoscale biological CMOS sensory systems and for leadership in the emerging area of co-design in Bio/Nano/CMOS interfaces for sensing
of the IEEE Sensors Council
Best Paper Award
by the Sensors Council at the IEEE Symposium MeMeA, Bari, Italy
2nd Best Paper Award
at the IEEE Sensors Conference, Montreal, Canada
Gold Leaf Prize
at the 1st IEEE/NGCAS international Conference, Genoa, Italy
Best Poster Award
at the EMBEC’17 international Conference, Tampere, Finland
Best Paper Award
at the MOBIHEALTH international Conference, Milan, Italy
Gold Leaf Prize
at the 11th PRIME international Conference, Glasgow, UK
of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society
First Prize, Best Poster Award
for the best poster at the Nano-Tera Annual Meeting, Bern, Switzerland
Bronze Leaf Prize
at the 6th PRIME international Conference, Berlin, Germany
Gold Leaf Prize
at the 5th PRIME international Conference, Cork, Ireland
Papers from Infoscience
Laser-Induced Graphene on Chitosan: An Enabling Technology for Sustainable Resistive Humidity SensorsIeee Sensors Letters. 2023-09-01. DOI : 10.1109/LSENS.2023.3300829.
Unraveling the Effect of the Chemical and Structural Composition of ZnxNi1-xFe2O4 on the Electron Transfer at the Electrochemical InterfaceSmall Structures. 2023-08-22. DOI : 10.1002/sstr.202300163.
Portable impedance-sensing device for microorganism characterization in the fieldScientific Reports. 2023-06-29. DOI : 10.1038/s41598-023-37506-1.
Biocompatible and Biodegradable 3D Printing from Bioplastics: A ReviewPolymers. 2023-05-18. DOI : 10.3390/polym15102355.
A Front-End CMOS Interface Circuit With High Voltage Charge Pump and Oscillator for Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic TransducersIeee Transactions On Circuits And Systems Ii-Express Briefs. 2023-05-01. DOI : 10.1109/TCSII.2023.3261061.
Uncertainty analysis of polymer-based capacitive relative humidity sensor at negative temperatures and low humidity levelsMeasurement. 2023-03-15. DOI : 10.1016/j.measurement.2023.112468.
Optical Urea Sensing in Sweat for Kidney Healthcare by Sensitive and Selective Non-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy2023-01-01. Conference on Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XXIII - Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics, San Francisco, CA, Jan 30-31, 2023. p. 123870H. DOI : 10.1117/12.2653959.
A Sustainable Printed Chitosan-Based Sensor for Acetone Detection2023-01-01. 18th International Conference on Ph.D Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), Valencia, SPAIN, Jun 18-21, 2023. p. 121-124. DOI : 10.1109/PRIME58259.2023.10161879.
Robust Analog Multisensory Array System for Lossy Capacitive Sensors Over Long DistancesIeee Transactions On Instrumentation And Measurement. 2023-01-01. DOI : 10.1109/TIM.2022.3225041.
Sustainable Printed Chitosan-Based Humidity Sensor on Flexible Biocompatible Polymer SubstrateIeee Sensors Letters. 2022-12-01. DOI : 10.1109/LSENS.2022.3224768.
New Insights for Parasitic Effects of Label-Free Biosensors Based on Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic TransducersIeee Sensors Journal. 2022-11-01. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2022.3206097.
Editorial: Smart dust: Micro and nano scale devices for highly-integrated localized and distributed smart systems for precision and personalized medicineFrontiers In Neurorobotics. 2022-10-10. DOI : 10.3389/fnbot.2022.1051124.
Coupling Effects of Crosstalk and Parasitic Loss on Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic TransducersIeee Sensors Journal. 2022-02-15. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2022.3140649.
A Needle-Shaped Electrochemical Sensor in Platinum for Robust Monitoring of Anaesthetics2022-01-01. IEEE Sensors Conference, Dallas, TX, Oct 30-Nov 02, 2022. DOI : 10.1109/SENSORS52175.2022.9967156.
Self-Powered Measurement System for Remote Monitoring of Human Metabolism2022-01-01. 17th IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (IEEE MeMeA), Messina, ITALY, Jun 22-24, 2022. DOI : 10.1109/MEMEA54994.2022.9856588.
Sodium lactate solutions characterization using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy2022-01-01. 17th IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (IEEE MeMeA), Messina, ITALY, Jun 22-24, 2022. DOI : 10.1109/MEMEA54994.2022.9856471.
Rapid, Sensitive and Selective Optical Glucose Sensing with Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS)2022-01-01. 17th IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (IEEE MeMeA), Messina, ITALY, Jun 22-24, 2022. DOI : 10.1109/MEMEA54994.2022.9856428.
Ultra-Miniaturised CMOS Current Driver for Wireless Biphasic Intracortical Microstimulation2022-01-01. 11th International Conference on Modern Circuits and Systems Technologies (MOCAST), Bremen, GERMANY, Jun 08-10, 2022. DOI : 10.1109/MOCAST54814.2022.9837681.
Electrodes for Paracetamol Sensing Modified with Bismuth Oxide and Oxynitrate Heterostructures: An Experimental and Computational StudyChemosensors. 2021-12-01. DOI : 10.3390/chemosensors9120361.
All-Solid-State Ion-Selective Electrodes: A Tutorial for Correct PracticeIEEE Sensors Journal. 2021-10-15. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2021.3099209.
Real-Time Multi-Ion-Monitoring Front-End With Interference Compensation by Multi-Output Support Vector RegressorIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. 2021-10-05. DOI : 10.1109/TBCAS.2021.3118945.
20 Years of IEEE SENSORS JOURNALIeee Sensors Journal. 2021-06-01. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2021.3076902.
The Birth of a New Field: Memristive Sensors. A ReviewIeee Sensors Journal. 2021-06-01. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2020.3043305.
Body Dust: Well Beyond Wearable and Implantable SensorsIeee Sensors Journal. 2021-06-01. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2020.3029432.
Very Selective Detection of Low Physiopathological Glucose Levels by Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy with Univariate Data AnalysisBioNanoScience. 2021-05-08. DOI : 10.1007/s12668-021-00867-w.
Bismuth-Nanocomposites Modified SPCEs for Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical SensorsIeee Sensors Journal. 2021-05-01. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2021.3059278.
Electrochemical Sensing of Adenosin Triphosphate by Specific Binding to Dipicolylamine Group in Cyclodextrin Supramolecular ComplexAcs Applied Bio Materials. 2021-04-19. DOI : 10.1021/acsabm.1c00166.
Wearable and Battery-Free Health-Monitoring Devices With Optical Power TransferIeee Sensors Journal. 2021-04-01. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2021.3050139.
Multi-ion-sensing emulator and multivariate calibration optimization by machine learning modelsIEEE Access. 2021-03-23. DOI : 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3065754.
Smart Portable Pen for Continuous Monitoring of Anaesthetics in Human Serum With Machine LearningIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. 2021-03-19. DOI : 10.1109/TBCAS.2021.3067388.
The Michelangelo step: removing scalloping and tapering effects in high aspect ratio through silicon viasScientific Reports. 2021-02-17. DOI : 10.1038/s41598-021-83546-w.
A 20 Mbps, 433 MHz RF ASK Transmitter to Inductively Power a Distributed Network of Miniaturised Neural Implants2021-01-01. 16th IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (IEEE MeMeA), ELECTR NETWORK, Jun 23-25, 2021. DOI : 10.1109/MeMeA52024.2021.9478678.
Equivalent Circuit Analysis of CMUTs-based Device for Measurement in Liquid Samples2021-01-01. 16th IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (IEEE MeMeA), ELECTR NETWORK, Jun 23-25, 2021. DOI : 10.1109/MeMeA52024.2021.9478722.
Integrated Potentiostat Design for Neurotransmitter Detection in Wireless Implants2021-01-01. IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), ELECTR NETWORK, Aug 09-11, 2021. p. 848-852. DOI : 10.1109/MWSCAS47672.2021.9531719.
Optimized Detection of Hypoglycemic Glucose Ranges in Human Serum by Raman Spectroscopy with 532 nm Laser Excitation2021-01-01. 10th International Conference on Photonics, Optics and Laser Technology (PHOTOPTICS), ELECTR NETWORK, Feb 10-11, 2022. p. 158-165. DOI : 10.5220/0010981300003121.
From 0.18 mu m to 28nm CMOS Down-scaling for Data Links in Body Dust Applications2021-01-01. 20th IEEE Sensors Conference, ELECTR NETWORK, Oct 31-Nov 04, 2021. DOI : 10.1109/SENSORS47087.2021.9639639.
System and method for removing scalloping and tapering effects in high aspect ratio through-silicon vias of wafersUS11735478 ; US2021351075 . 2021.
Hardware and Software Interfaces Design for Multi-Panel Electrochemical SensorsLausanne, EPFL, 2021. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-8725.
A wearable electrochemical sensing system for non-invasive monitoring of lithium drug in bipolar disorderIEEE Sensors Journal. 2021. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2020.3009538.
Miniaturised Wireless Power Transfer Systems for Neurostimulation: A ReviewIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. 2020-11-17. DOI : 10.1109/TBCAS.2020.3038599.
Electrochemical determination of nicotine in smokers' sweatMicrochemical Journal. 2020-11-01. DOI : 10.1016/j.microc.2020.105155.
Wearable multifunctional sweat-sensing system for efficient healthcare monitoringSensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2020-10-24. DOI : 10.1016/j.snb.2020.129017.
Continuous monitoring of propofol in human serum with fouling compensation by support vector classifierBiosensors and Bioelectronics. 2020-10-15. DOI : 10.1016/j.bios.2020.112666.
Electrochemical Assay for Extremely Selective Recognition of Fructose Based on 4-Ferrocene-Phenylboronic Acid Probe and beta-Cyclodextrins Supramolecular ComplexSmall. 2020-10-09. DOI : 10.1002/smll.202003359.
Emulator Design and Generation of Synthetic Dataset in Multi-Ion Sensing2020-09-28. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Sevilla, Spain (Virtual), October 10-21, 2020. DOI : 10.1109/ISCAS45731.2020.9181217.
Humidity Sensors for High Energy Physics Applications: A ReviewIeee Sensors Journal. 2020-09-15. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2020.2994315.
Microfluidics by Additive Manufacturing for Wearable Biosensors: A ReviewSensors. 2020-07-29. DOI : 10.3390/s20154236.
Biosensors for Bimolecular Computing: a Review and Future PerspectivesBionanoscience. 2020-06-22. DOI : 10.1007/s12668-020-00764-8.
New Measurement Method in Drug Sensing by Direct Total-Charge Detection in Voltammetry2020-06-01. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA), Bari, Italy, 1 June-1 July, 2020. p. 1-6. DOI : 10.1109/MeMeA49120.2020.9137197.
New Approach for Making Standard the Development of Biosensing Devices by a Modular Multi-Purpose DesignIEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience. 2020-05-18. DOI : 10.1109/TNB.2020.2995230.
Milk Allergen Detection: Sensitive Label-Free Voltammetric Immunosensor Based on ElectropolymerizationBionanoscience. 2020-04-15. DOI : 10.1007/s12668-020-00730-4.
Pencil Graphite Needle-Shaped Biosensor for Anaesthetic Monitoring in Human Serum2020-01-01. IEEE Sensors Conference, ELECTR NETWORK, Oct 25-28, 2020. DOI : 10.1109/SENSORS47125.2020.9278590.
A 3D printed wearable device for sweat analysis2020-01-01. 15th IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA), Bari, ITALY, Jun 01-03, 2020. DOI : 10.1109/MeMeA49120.2020.9137273.
Wearable multi-electrode platform for ion sensingLausanne, EPFL, 2020. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-7944.
Multi-Channel Front-End for Electrochemical Sensing of Metabolites, Drugs, and ElectrolytesIEEE Sensors Journal. 2020. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2959885.
Integration Methods of Cyclodextrins on Gold and Carbon Electrodes for Electrochemical SensorsC — Journal of Carbon Research. 2019-11-27. DOI : 10.3390/c5040078.
Electrochemical detection of different p53 conformations by using nanostructured surfacesScientific Reports. 2019-11-22. DOI : 10.1038/s41598-019-53994-6.
Flexible sweat sensors for non-invasive optimization of lithium dose in psychiatric disorders2019-10-27. 18th IEEE Sensors Conference, Montreal, Canada, October 27-30, 2019. DOI : 10.1109/SENSORS43011.2019.8956598.
Gold and silver bio/nano-hybrids-based electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigenBiosensors & Bioelectronics. 2019-09-15. DOI : 10.1016/j.bios.2019.111439.
Multi-Target Electrolyte Sensing Front-End for Wearable Physical Monitoring2019-07-15. 2019 15Th Conference On Phd Research In Microelectronics And Electronics (Prime), Lausanne, Switzerland, July 15-18, 2019. p. 249-252. DOI : 10.1109/PRIME.2019.8787768.
All-solid-state Reference Electrodes for analytical applications2019-06-13. IWASI 2019, Otranto, Italie, June 13-14, 2019. p. 66-69. DOI : 10.1109/IWASI.2019.8791382.
Optimized Sampling Rate for Voltammetry-Based Electrochemical Sensing in Wearable and IoT ApplicationsIEEE Sensors Letters. 2019-06-01. DOI : 10.1109/LSENS.2019.2918575.
Fast Procedures for the Electrodeposition of Platinum Nanostructures on Miniaturized Electrodes for Improved Ion SensingSensors. 2019-05-16. DOI : 10.3390/s19102260.
Multi-panel, on-single-chip Memristive BiosensingIEEE Sensors Journal. 2019-03-12. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2019.2904393.
Live Demonstration: Quasi-Digital Portable Pen to Monitor Anaesthetics Delivery2019. 2019 IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS), Nara, Japan, October 17-19, 2019. p. 1-1. DOI : 10.1109/BIOCAS.2019.8919193.
Supplementary Material for "Optimized Sampling Rate for Voltammetry-Based Electrochemical Sensing in Wearable and IoT Applications"2019.
Quasi-Digital Biosensor-Interface for a Portable Pen to Monitor Anaesthetics Delivery2019-01-01. 15th Conference on Ph.D Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), Lausanne, SWITZERLAND, Jul 15-18, 2019. p. 265-268. DOI : 10.1109/PRIME.2019.8787764.
Direct and catalyst-free growth of vertically-stacked graphene-based structures for enhanced drug sensing2019-01-01. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE ISCAS), Sapporo, JAPAN, May 26-29, 2019. DOI : 10.1109/ISCAS.2019.8702556.
Memristive Biosensors based on Full-size Antibodies and Antibody FragmentsSensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2019. DOI : 10.1016/j.snb.2019.02.001.
Nanowire Sensors in CancerTrends In Biotechnology. 2019-01-01. DOI : 10.1016/j.tibtech.2018.07.014.
Integrated Bio/Nano/CMOS Interfaces for Electrochemical Molecular SensingIeej Transactions On Electrical And Electronic Engineering. 2018-11-01. DOI : 10.1002/tee.22793.
Highly-stable Li + ion-selective electrodes based on noble metal nanostructured layers as solid-contactsAnalytica Chimica Acta. 2018-10-16. DOI : 10.1016/j.aca.2018.04.062.
Special Issue on Selected Papers From IEEE BioCAS 2017Ieee Transactions On Biomedical Circuits And Systems. 2018-10-01. DOI : 10.1109/TBCAS.2018.2873068.
Organs-on-chip monitoring: sensors and other strategiesMicrophysiological Systems. 2018-09-05. DOI : 10.21037/mps.2018.01.01.
Raspberry-Pi based system for propofol monitoringIntegration-The Vlsi Journal. 2018-09-01. DOI : 10.1016/j.vlsi.2018.04.004.
An IoT Solution for Online Monitoring of Anesthetics in Human Serum Based on an Integrated Fluidic Bioelectronic SystemIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. 2018-08-31. DOI : 10.1109/TBCAS.2018.2855048.
A Flexible Front-End for Wearable Electrochemical Sensing2018-08-20. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA), Rome, Italy, June 11-13, 2018. p. 558-563. DOI : 10.1109/MeMeA.2018.8438787.
A novel electrochemical sensor for non-invasive monitoring of lithium levels in mood disorders2018-07-21. 40th International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, July 17-21, 2018. p. 3825-3828. DOI : 10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513315.
microRNA biosensors: Opportunities and challenges among conventional and commercially available techniquesBiosensors & Bioelectronics. 2018-06-15. DOI : 10.1016/j.bios.2017.08.007.
Graphene nanowalls for high-performance chemotherapeutic drug sensing and anti-fouling propertiesSensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2018-06-01. DOI : 10.1016/j.snb.2018.02.036.
Portable Memristive Biosensing System as Effective Point-of-Care Device for Cancer Diagnostics2018-05-30. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Florence, Italy, May 27-30, 2018. DOI : 10.1109/ISCAS.2018.8351438.
Silicon Nanowires for BiosensingEncyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry: Surface Science and Electrochemistry; Elsevier, 2018-05-04.
Performance of Carbon Nano-Scale Allotropes in Detecting Midazolam and Paracetamol in Undiluted Human SerumIEEE Sensors Journal. 2018-04-20. DOI : 10.1109/JSEN.2018.2828416.
A novel psychoanalytical approach: An electrochemical ligand-binding assay to screen antipsychoticsBiosensors & Bioelectronics. 2018-02-15. DOI : 10.1016/j.bios.2017.08.059.
Mining the Potential of Label-Free Biosensors for In Vitro Antipsychotic Drug ScreeningBiosensors. 2018-01-09. DOI : 10.3390/bios8010006.
Fouling-resistant pencil graphite electrodeWO2018220423 . 2018.
Battery-Free, Sticker-Like, Device for Health Monitoring, Operated by Optical Power Transfer2018-01-01. IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS) - Advanced Systems for Enhancing Human Health, Cleveland, OH, Oct 17-19, 2018. p. 375-378. DOI : 10.1109/BIOCAS.2018.8584707.
Wearable System for Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation with Muscle Fatigue Feedback2018-01-01. 17th IEEE SENSORS Conference, New Delhi, INDIA, Oct 28-31, 2018. p. 1272-1275. DOI : 10.1109/ICSENS.2018.8589763.
Mixed gold and platinum nanostructured layers for all-solid-state ion sensors2018-01-01. 17th IEEE SENSORS Conference, New Delhi, INDIA, Oct 28-31, 2018. p. 924-927. DOI : 10.1109/ICSENS.2018.8630299.
Live Demonstration: An IoT Cloud-Based Architecture for Anesthesia Monitoring2018-01-01. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Florence, ITALY, May 27-30, 2018. DOI : 10.1109/ISCAS.2018.8351838.
IoT for Telemedicine Practices enabled by an Android (TM) Application with Cloud System Integration2018-01-01. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Florence, ITALY, May 27-30, 2018. DOI : 10.1109/ISCAS.2018.8351871.
IoT Bio-Electronic Multi-Panel Device for On-line Monitoring of Anaesthesia DeliveryLausanne, EPFL, 2018. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-8800.
Label-free detection of hypoxia-induced extracellular vesicle secretion from MCF-7 cellsScientific Reports. 2018. DOI : 10.1038/s41598-018-27203-9.
Highly sensitive enzymatic MWCNTs-based biosensors for detection of abiraterone in human serumBioNanoScience. 2018. DOI : 10.1007/s12668-017-0393-3.
An electrochemical sensor for quantitative analysis of Rhesus D antibodies in blood2017-06-15. 7th IEEE International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI), Vieste, Italy, June 15-16, 2017. DOI : 10.1109/IWASI.2017.7974261.
The memristive effect as a novelty in drug monitoringNanoscale. 2017-06-06. DOI : 10.1039/c7nr01297g.
Memristive Aptasensors for Theranostics2017-04-06. International Conference on Memristive Materials, Devices & Systems (MEMRISYS), Athens, Greece, April 3-6, 2017.
Aptamer-based Field-Effect Biosensor for Tenofovir DetectionScientific Reports. 2017-03-15. DOI : 10.1038/srep44409.
Live Demonstration: An IoT SmartWatch-based System for Intensive Care MonitoringIEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS), Turin, Italy, October 19-21, 2017.
Raspberry Pi Driven Flow-Injection System for Electrochemical Continuous Monitoring Platforms2017. IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS), Turin, Italy, October 19-21, 2017. DOI : 10.1109/BIOCAS.2017.8325134.
Books1. Sandro Carrara, Krzysztof Iniewski, (Eds), Handbook of Bioelectronics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015 // 2. Sandro Carrara (Aut), Bio/CMOS Interfaces and Co-Design, Springer, New York, 2013 // 3. W.Burleson & S.Carrara (Eds), Security and Privacy for Implantable Medical Devices, Springer, NY, 2014 // 4. Sandro Carrara (Ed), Nano-Bio-Sensing, Springer, New York, 2011 // 5. Sandro Carrara (Aut), Che cosa è il tempo? (italian), Simonelli, Milan, 2011 // 6. Alexander Schmid, al. et S.Carrara (Eds), Nano-Net, Springer, Berlin, 2009 // 7. C.A. Nicolini, S. Carrara, et al. (Auts), Molecular Bioelectronics, World Scientific, Singapore, 1996
EPFL patents and patent requests1. Frasca Simone, Edoardo Charbon, Sandro Carrara, Rebecca Leghziel, System and Method for removing scalloping and tapering effects in high aspect ratio through-silicon vias of wafer, US Provisional Patent Application n° US 63/020,147 filed on May 5, 2020
2. Eda Mehmeti, Clement Laur, Sandro Carrara, Method and device for detecting nicotine in sweat, Provisional filed at the European Patent Office on May 9th 2019, registration # EP19305595.1
3. Carrara Sandro, Stradolini Francesca, Kilic Tugba, "Fouling-resistant Pencil Graphite electrode", international Patent Application n° PCT/IB2017/053175, filing date May 30, 2017
4. Irene Taurino, Magrez Arnaud, Forro Laszlo, Giovanni De Micheli, Sandro Carrara, Close and Selective Integration of Carbon Nanomaterials by CVD onto working microelectrodes of multi sensing electrochemical biosensors, Provisional filed at the European Patent Office on September 13th 2013, registration # EP 13184291.6, PCT application n° PCT/IB2014/064528 filed September 15, 2014
5. Gözen Küklü, Demirci Tugba, Giovanni De Micheli, Sandro Carrara, A novel High Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensors with Event/Change Detection and Data Compression, Provisional US Patent Office Application, year 2013, Filling # 61/816,197
Present research projectsEPFL/UM6P Program “Excellence in Africa“
Final objective of the program is to create the proper conditions for them to produce outstanding PhD research. More generally, the program will contribute to the emergence of a new generation of talented young researchers in Africa and to nurture excellence in the academic sector throughout the continent. In particular, we will use Additive manufacturing by bioplastic from agricultural wastes and recycled plastics, and then optimize the 3D printing process parameters for development of biomedical devices, including biosensors. We will also develop Iron oxide nanocomposites for development of innovative devices for detection and removal of pollutant from clear water.
Von Neumann computation provided to humanity an enormous advantage allowing the spreading of computational power all around the world, nowadays largely embedded in personal electronics too (e.g., personal computers, tablets, smartphones, smartwatches, etc.). Von Neumann machines are based on an architectural concept that is based on storing data as physically separated by the core of computation. Typical examples are modern personal computers where computation is done in the CPU (Central Processing Unit) while data are stored in memories (e.g., Random-access memories, cash memories, non-volatile storage device, etc.). However, moving data from memory to processing units is “time consuming”, and represents a bottleneck in computation, while Deep Learning machines exploit a kind of computation based on neural networks. Memristors seem “naturally close” to biological neurons in term of functionality, since they fuse the concept of storing and computing in a single device. Therefore, the aim of this Swiss NSF funded project is to design, realize, and demonstrate the very-first ever-proposed architecture for a new computation machine enabling the concept of “in-memory sensing”: it will automatically provide more than the present edge- computing since, since the computation will be done in the sensors, not close to the sensor.
Eurostar Project NUTRISENS
Development and characterization of the individual ion selective ISFET sensors and their integration into a multi-ISFET sensor head. New membranes for selected ions (e.g., K , NO3–, NH4 , and H2PO4–) are realized based on the recipes used for already established ion-selective membranes. Adapting ionophore-bearing, selective membranes to MICROSENS’ ISFET devices with dedicated selective membrane synthesis, deposition, and testing with respect the specifications required by the application of water-plants monitoring. The packaging of multi-ISFET probes, holding individual sensors, will be designed and realized as will its housing. The design of the latter is dedicated by the constraints given by the micro FLOAT. The multi-sensor module together with an integrated miniature reference electrode will then be evaluated with respect to the basic NUTRISENS specifications
Radiation-Tolerance Humidity-Sensor for High-Energy Physics
The “next” generation (after 2025) of high-energy Physics detectors are going to be even more silicon-based. The number of channels is surpassing the billion (for a volume of ~20 m3) with very high current densities and power consumption close to 250 kW. Cooling is then indispensable both for removal of the produced heat and for avoiding thermal runaway due to the temperature increase induced by the sensor leakage current. The cooling temperatures will range between -35 and -25 degrees Celsius. At those temperatures, vapour condensation may result in dramatic detector’s damages. In order to prevent damages by vapour condensation, relative humidity needs reliable and detailed monitoring. To be accurate the dew point temperature has to be monitored but the detectors are equipped with millions of radiation hard temperature sensors that can be combined with a relative humidity measurement in order to give the dew point value. However, the performance of any relative humidity sensor operating in high-energy detectors is highly degraded. Therefore, the main goal of this research is to develop the humidity sensor that will survive in such an environment.
SWEASE (Smart WEArable Sensors for E-Health applications)
The SWEASE project is a networking project born and funded by the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Padova. The project exploits the combination of emerging printed electronics techniques (e.g. Aerosol Jet Printing), nanotechnologies, advanced front-end designs, processing techniques and on-field validation strategies to make a step ahead in the robust continuous monitoring of muscular activity and fatigue during rehabilitation exercises. The activities focus on design and fabrication of customized printed flexible and stretchable wearable sensors able to non-invasively and simultaneously measure electromyographic signals (EMG) and lactate concentration in sweat during muscular activity. Taking advantage of a portable wireless front-end, the combined information driven from the sensors during specific muscular exercises will be then processed to provide a useful feedback in rehabilitative sessions, to prevent fatigue and improve exercises personalization and effectiveness.
Smart Neural Dust to Revert Blindness
(Body Dust for Brain stimulation)Visual prostheses are used to revert blindness: a medical condition affecting more than 39 million people worldwide (WHO). So far retinal prostheses showed the best performances in clinical trial on patients. However, one of the main limitations is the low resolution as due to the limited number of electrodes that can be addressed with wires. Therefore, we propose an innovative neurostimulation by wireless device is an array of thousands freestanding, ultra-small, and individually addressable CMOS-pixels (200 x 200 x 30 μm3), as a kind of Body-Dust embedded into a conformable mesh for easy surgical placement in human visual cortex.
(Compact Glucose Sensing Using Vibrational Imaging)
With diabetes as a major disease issue for many people all around the world, the regular monitoring of the blood glucose level remains the only way to avoid severe secondary health complication through controlled insulin administration. However, present way to measure glucose level in diabetic patients is quite invasive techniques like the ﬁngerstick testing. Therefore, we plan here the development of new and fully non-invasive blood glucose monitoring techniques that would improve significantly the life quality of diabetic subjects and help early detection and prevention of diabetes for the healthy ones.
More info about Research including Past ProjectsSee more @ https://www.epfl.ch/labs/iclab/index-html/bci-group/research/
CTI/project: Integrated ion-sensor platform for remote monitoring of water networks
The company Microsens, a company of the EPFL Scientific Park, has more than 20 years experience on devices for water quality monitoring. On the other hand, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL is currently developing electrochemical sensors for monitoring ions. Therefore, EPFL and Microsens would like to merge the ideas and technologies for investigation of innovative nano-sensors for continuous monitoring of the water quality. Electrochemical sensors are chosen because they can be easily integrated with electronics to provide automated monitoring in the field, including wireless transmission thank to an approach that we have already successfully demonstrated for medical applications.
Breast cancer-on-a-chip with integrated sensors for drug screening
The goal of the present project is to design a breast-cancer-on-a-chip with integrated electrochemical sensors for circulating miRNA and exosome detection to test efficacy of chemotherapeutics. Herein, BC spheroids will be cultured 3D in PDMS based microfluidic bioreactor that is connected to multiple electrochemical sensors for on-line monitoring of biomarker secretion. The results obtained via EC sensors will be evaluated via additional methods such as qRT-PCR and ELISA and will provide the basis for future exosome and circulating miRNA detection from cell culture media since it will be the first study in literature. Overall, this project aims to open new approaches for chemotherapeutic screening and help prevention the global population suffering from breast cancer.
UE COST Action MemoCiS
The invention of the transfer resistor, or transistor as it is know today, is considered to be the greatest invention of the 20th century, as it forms the basis of all electronic systems. The next technological revolution will come through self-organizing and self-programming circuits and systems, which are similar to biological brains in that they can learn to perform tasks. This COST action is aimed at bringing together researchers of different backgrounds to work in unison so as to overcome multidisciplinary barriers in the area of memristors. The creation of the hardware basis for future self-organizing/self-programming systems will really open up a wide range of application areas and new industries, e.g. humanoid robots to look after the elderly, self-driven vehicles etc.
Pierre Fabre: Feasibility Study for Nicotine detection on skin sweat
The company PIERRE FABRE MEDICAMENT, IRPF is conducting a product development program regarding the detection of nicotine inside human perspiration. On the other hand, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL is currently developing electrochemical sensors for monitoring biomarkers such as drugs, metabolites inside human perspiration. Therefore, EPFL and Pierre Fabre would like to merge the ideas and technologies for investigation of electrochemical sensor development for the detection of nicotine inside perspiration.
SNF project Reprogramming of Tie-2 Expressing Monocytes (TEM) in breast cancer
The key scientific purpose of this new project proposal is to understand the functional behavior of TEM in breast cancer in order to design optimal treatments able to reverse TEM into cells promoting protective anti-tumor immune responses. To this end, we will take advantage of our nanowire detection approach using multiplexed nanowire arrays sensing a panel of secretion markers reflecting TEM hemangiogenic, lymphangiogenic, immune suppressive, tumoricidal and anti-tumor activities. We plan also to use nanowire arrays to capture TEM landscape directly on the tumor tissue. This approach represents the first attempt to capture the tumor microenvironment leaving intact the tumor tissue for complementary characterization by confocal microscopy.
Food-Allergy-Chip: platform to investigate food allergy
Food allergy tests are done by Skin tests, including the prick test and the scratch test however, these tests are dangerous because of anaphylaxis by serum antibodies. Therefore, a safe, simple and rapid method for detecting allergic reaction is required for clinical use and in the food industry. A recent study on mice showed that common bacteria called Clostridia help prevent sensitization to food allergens in mice. While IL-22 is known to be a key signaling molecule to decrease the permeability of the intestinal lining to prevent allergens to enter your bloodstream. Therefore, the aim of this project is to study food allergy and the effect of gut microbiome against food allergens by a Food-Allergy-Chip where electrochemical biosensors will monitor food-allergy biomarkers, including interleukin-22 (IL-22).
UE ITN Project on Prostate Cancer
The Marie Curie Initial Training Network PROSENSE aims at training a new generation of young scientists in the interdisciplinary techniques and methods required to meet the major challenges in the development of diagnostic tools for prostate cancer. A full program of cross-disciplinary and cross-sectorial students exchange, training and events will enable PROSENSE to promote interaction, knowledge exchange and collaboration in the multidisciplinary field of biosensor design with the aim of developing improved devices for prostate cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatments.
Pierre Fabre: Feasibility Study for Drugs in Schizophrenia
The company PIERRE FABRE MEDICAMENT, IRPF is conducting a development program regarding new product with also organic small molecule with property as anti-cancer agent, exclusive property of PIERRE FABRE MEDICAMENT. On the other hand, the EPLF is currently developing devices that also integrate electrochemical sensors for the continuous monitoring of exogenous substances such as drugs, including compounds for schizophrenia treatment. Therefore, both parties joined the efforts to investigate the possibility to apply the technology under development in EPFL to the PIERRE FABRE’ products.
The project aims to develop a new system for continuous monitoring of critical patients in intensive care units (ICU). Patients in intensive care units are typically under the risk of fatal due to Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), a generic systemic response. If not treated within the first 48 h in ICU, it usually evolves to Multiple Organ Failure Syndrome (MOFS) and, then, in the death of the patient. However, commonly monitored physiological parameters do not allow early diagnosis and prediction of deterioration toward multiple organ failure. Therefore, this project aims to development of definitely new diagnostic tools capable of continuous monitoring of some critical metabolites in interstitial fluid (ISF) might significantly reduce mortality of these patients.
EPFL CNU project BactoChip
The intestinal epithelium provides a selective barrier that protects the human organism from the invasion of pathogens and other undesired external factors but, at the same time, allows an efficient uptake of nutrients from the diet. In order to let macronutrients present in foods to be transferred across the intestinal barrier, the ingested macromolecules need to be broken into their building blocks. Recent research has demonstrated that commensal bacteria participate to a significant extend to the metabolism of nutrients by producing digestive enzymes as well as by influencing the intestinal transport of nutrients. We aim now to develop a new Lab-on-a-Chip platform (the BactoChip) that integrates a biofilm of a commensal E. coli strain to mimic the distal part of the intestine that is highly populated by bacteria.
System for Drug Monitoring in Personalized Therapy (Prolongation)
The aim of this project is to address the novel issues that emerged during the first stage of the research. To this end, we target now the development of new multi-panel array including linear and non-linear approaches to improve sensors specificity at system level, the design and implementation of an external control unit to improve the efficiency of the Remote Powering System for the final tests in vivo with Freely Moving Mice; the monitor active drugs in vivo, and the design, cloning, and expressing mutants of some probe P450 isoforms to improve the enzymes-substrates kinetics.
Tie-2-expressing monocytes - Appealing targets in breast cancer angiogenesis
This project proposes a new detection methodology based on memristive-effect registered on silicon nanowire to detect a new class of cancer markers. The nano-wires are fabricated by an innovative lithographic technique that allows precise and selective etching at the nanoscale. The wires are obtained in three main steps. Initially, a photoresist line defines the wire position. In a second step, silicon deep reactive ion etching is performed to obtain a scalloped trench. In the final step, the trench is reduced to a suspended nanowire after wet oxidation. The obtained wires present are functionalized with antibodies in order to sense the cancer markers on dried samples.
The aim of this project is to study an innovative, multi-metabolites, highly integrated, fully implantable, and real-time monitoring system for human metabolism. The monitored metabolic molecules are not limited to lactate, glucose, ATP, Arachidonic Acid, Bilirubin, and others. To pursue this aim, the project is developing an innovative technology by integrating SW/HW/RF/micro/nano/bio systems in three devices: (i) a fully implantable sensors array for data acquisition; (ii) a wearable patch for remote powering and data acquisition; (iii) a Bluetooth connection to a smartphone.
Sinergia Project on Drug Monitoring
A fully mature biochip system capable of continuous monitoring drugs and biomarkers in blood, or in sub-cutaneous districts is under development and it constitutes a major breakthrough in molecular medicine for personalizing therapy of complex diseases. The aim of the present project is to undertake a multidisciplinary approach to substantially advance the state-of-the-art of implantable devices. The project requires a strong convergence between micro-nano-bio-medical technologies with the motivation to provide a new tool for the direct monitoring of the patient's drug metabolism in personalized pharmacological treatments.
The NutriChip project will combine biological sciences, nanotechnology, micro-technology and system integration aspects applied by a multidisciplinary team to develop an efficient analytical tool to gain holistic insight into the contribution of dairy products to human nutrition and health. Cells surface receptors called TLR2/4 were recently found to be down regulated in overweight and obese patients, and TLR4 is a receptor for dietary fat. So, a hardware interface is under development in order to detect TLR receptors in CaCo2 cells by combining a CMOS low-noise imager and required super-resolution algorithms.
The project aims at the realization of an acupuncture i-needle for measuring Temperature, pH, and rotational velocity in animal tissues. A feasibility study is also conducted in order to evaluate the possibility to integrate molecular sensors in the i-needle I order to measure metabolites released in the extracellular matrix by the acupuncture treatment. Therefore, this project aims at providing a new tool to address the currently lacking systematic and scientific evidence of the physical and molecular mechanisms acting behind the acupuncture therapy.
National and International CollaborationsRunning
Thimoty Constandinou (Imperial Collage, London)
Takashi Hayashita (Sofia University, Tokyo)
Andromachi Tsirou (CERN)
Pantelis Georgiou (Imperial Collage, London)
Danilo Demarchi (Politecnico di Torino)
Thierry Buclin (CHUV, University of Lausanne)
Diego Ghezzi (EPFL, Lausanne)
Catherine Dehollain (EPFL, Lausanne)
Sivestro Micera (EPFL, Lausanne)
Jun Ohta (Nara Institue of Science and Technology)
Marie-Agnès Doucey (Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research)
Christine Nardini (Karolinska Institute, Sweden)
Ali Khademhosseini (Harvard, Boston)
Ralph Etienne-Cummings (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore)
Anthony Guiseppi-Elie (Clemson University/South Carolina)
Mohamad Sawan (École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada)
Elisabetta Chicca (Universty of Bielefeld/DE)
Ursula von Mandach (Zurich University)
Linda Thöny-Mayer (EMPA/San Gallen)
Pedro Estrela (University of Bath/UK)
Qiuting Huang (ETHZ, Zurich)
Fabio Grassi (IRB/Bellinzona)
Paolo Silacci (ALP/Posieux)
Guy Vergères (ALP/Bern)
Pascal Colpo (EU JRC/Ispra)
Yusuf Leblebici (EPFL, Lausanne)
Martin Gijs (EPFL, Lausanne)
Philippe Renaud (EPFL, Lausanne)
Giacomo Indiveri (University of Zurich, ETHZ)
Teaching & PhD
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
PhD StudentsBarbruni Gian Luca, Bezerra Alexandre Emily Caroline, Briki Myriam, Chen Junrui, Du Lin, Jedari Golparvar Ata, Kapic Amar, Mafi Alireza, Meimandi Ali, Rodino Francesca, Zikulnig Johanna,
Past EPFL PhD StudentsAliakbarinodehi Nima , Baj-Rossi Camilla , Boero Cristina , Cavallini Andrea , Criscuolo Francesca , Ghaye Julien Michel , Ghoreishizadeh Seyedeh Sara , Köklü Gözen , Ny Hanitra Mandresy Ivan , Olivo Jacopo , Puppo Francesca , Stradolini Francesca , Taurino Irene , Tzouvadaki Ioulia ,
Other StudentsPhD Students in remote / Guest PhD Students
Maurine Andanje (2022-2026), Joseph Jjagwe (2022-2026), Mallikarjun Madagalam (2021-2024), Yihe Zhao (2021-2022), Maria Antonietta Casulli (2019-2022), Marco Scarpetta (2022), Mattia Alessandro Ragolia (2022), Simone Aiassa (2017-2021), Nattakarn Wuthibenjaphonchai (2018-2020), Mahshid Alsadat Padash (2019), Abuduwaili Tuoheti (2018), Sattar Akbari Nakhjavani (2018), Ana De Sousa Valinhas (2017), Sarah Tonello (2017), Xiaoling Lu (2016), Marius Schirmer (2016), Jacopo Secco (2015), Gabriella Sanzò (2014), Narayanan Srinivasan (2014), Ali Zaher (2014), Ismael Rattalino (2013), Evripides Kyriakides (2012), Alice Dimonte (2011), Giovanna De Vecchio (2010)